Management CH 3

Discipline: Management

Type of Paper: Question-Answer

Academic Level: Undergrad. (yrs 3-4)

Paper Format: APA

Pages: 1 Words: 275


Management/Management Principles & Policies

Studying theoretical perspectives of management can be a source of new ideas.

Evidence-based management means translating principles from promising new theories into organizational practice.
False; Evidence-based management means translating principles based on best evidence into organizational practice, bringing rationality to the decision-making process.

Noah is new to management in the music industry, which is undergoing dramatic change. He should study theoretical prespectives of management to help him predict some of the porbable outcomes of this change and help him decide on his strategy going forward.
True; Studying theoretical perspectives of management provides good theories that can help you make predictions and enable you to develop a set of principles that will guide your actions.

Ryan was having a hard time concentrating on work on Friday afternoon. He had friends visiting for the weekend and he kept checking his social media sites and other Web sites to solidfy his plans. He certainly wasn't working as hard as he could have been, something that scientific management theorist Frederick Taylor would have called "soldiering"

True; Frederick Taylor called deliberately working at less than full capacity soldiering.

One of the problems with the classical viewpoint is that its principles cannot be easliy grasped by most workers.
False; A flaw in the classical viewpoints is that it is mechanistic: It tends to view humans as cogs within a machine, not taking into account the importance of human needs.

Motivating employees toward achievement is a focus of the classical viewpoints of management.
False; The behavioral viewpoint emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward achievement.

Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor were theorists in the human relations movement.
The theorists who contributed most to the human relations movement-which proposed that better human relation could increase worker productivity-were Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor.

The management theory that draws from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics is the management science approach.
Behavioral science relies on science research for development theories about human behavior that can be used to provide practical tools for managers. The disciplines of behavioral science include psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics.

The behavioral science approach to management has its roots in techniques created for American and British military personnel and equipment in WWII.
When the Americans entered the war in 1941, they used a successful statistical British model to form operations research (OR) teams to determine how to deploy troops, submarines, and other military personnel and equipment most effectively. Or techniques have since evolved into quantitative management.

Contingency management is concerned with work scheduling, productions planning, and optimal levels of inventory.
Operations management is concerned with work scheduling, production planning, facilities location and design, and decisions about the optimum levels of inventory a company should maintain.

A set of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose is called a system.
A system is a set of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose.

One reason of the success of the Tommy Hilfiger clothing brand in the 1990's was maintaining a classed system with respect to young consumers' feedback

A learning organization is one that actively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge within itself and is able to modify itself to reflect new knowledge. 

Among aspects of human capital are goodwill, mutual respect, cooperation, trust, and teamwork.

Scientific and administrative management are part of the ________ viewpoint.

__________ was concerned with managing the total organization and was studied by Fayol and Weber.
Administrative management

Of the following, which is one of the functions of management described by Fayol?

Which of the following viewpoints emphasized the importance of understanding human actions and of motivating employees toward achievement?

Behavioral viewpoint

The idea that the work process should be under the control of workers with the relevant knowledge, rather than of managers, who should act as facilitators, was developed by
Mary Parker Follet

Which research, though flawed, drew attention to the idea that managers using good human relations could improve worker productivity?
The Hawthorne studies.

A(n) ______________ continually interacts with its environment.
open system

Gary Hamel believes that identifying and examining core beliefs that people have about an organization can be helpful in improving management

According to Deming, quality stemmed from a steady focus on the organization's mission and
a reduction in production variation.

Deming proposed that when something goes wrong, chances are __________ that the system is at fault, and __________ that the individual worker is at fault.
85%, 15%

Scott works for an organization that describes itself as a "learning organization." As a manager, which of the following actions is Scott most likely to take while working for this organization?
When Scott needs another employee, he deliberately looks for someone who will bring something new to the organization.

The practice of management is both an art and a science.

An "attitude of trial" refers in part to a willingness to set aside belief and conventional wisdom and to act on the facts.
Attitude of Wisdom

The contemporary perspective of management includes three viewpoints: systems, behavioral and quantitative.

Systems, Contingency, and quality-management.

Because of radical changes to modern business practice, studying theoretical perspectives of management unfortunately does not provide a helpful understanding of the present.

Studying theoretical perspectives of management can, among other things, help us to understand the present. "Sound theories help us interpret the present, to understand what is happening and why," say Christensen and Raynor. Understanding history will help you understand why some practices are still favored, whether for right or wrong reasons.

Max Weber felt that impersonality was a positive attribute of an organization that would lead to better performance.

Hugo Munsterberg suggested that psychologists could contribute to industry by studying jobs and determining which people are best suited to specific jobs.

Mary Parker Follett believed that conflicts within organization should be resolved to mutual satisfaction through a process called integration.

The idea that workers become more productive if they think that managers care about their welfare is called the "Hawthorne Effect."

The Hawthore studies have been criticized for poor design and a lack of empirical data to support the conclusions, so the findings cannot be applied to modern management.

Because the human relations movement was considered too simplistic for practical use, it has been superseded by the behavioral science approach to management.

The application to management of techniques such as statistics and computer simulations is known as quantitative management.

Michael is a manager of a downtown hotel and is currently considering pricing of rooms for the upcoming holiday season. He would be wise to use the mathematical tools of management science to help him with this decision.

Mindfulness is most helpful in improving quality control.

Mindfulness is associated with cultivating flexibility, which can help you take a contingency point of view towards management.

Which of the following is a good reason for studying theoretical perspectives of management?
Provides clues to the meaning of your managers' decisions.

______ emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve productivity of individual workers.
Scientific management

Amanda was a tough manager, and made it a regular practice to check up on her staff, looking for cheating on timesheets and people coming back late from lunch. She was not at all surprised to find rule-breakers with regularity, but she may have been falling into what management trap?
Self-fulfilling prophecy

Customers lined up for hours to be among the first to purchase the iPhone 4. The excitement for the product would be considered ______ in the system.

Audrey works for a large electronics company as a payroll manager. She has just attended a software training where she learned new tools that she thinks will benefit her staff. On the plane home Audrey began planning how she would train everyone in order to help her department reach its goals. Audrey's approach is most characteristic of what type of organization?
A learning organization.

Attracting, retaining, and developing great employees is a powerful method to stay ahead of the competition, which demonstrates the importance of ______ capital.

Peter Drucker was the author of The Practice of Management and has been described as the creator and inventor of modern management.

A "therblig", a term coined by Frank Gilbreth, is a unit of motion in the workplace.

In general, classical management assumes that people are self-interested.

In general, classical management assumes that people are rational.

Motion studies were used to assess and improve efficiency as part of the classical viewpoint.

Douglas McGregor was one of the pioneers of early behaviorism.

Early behaviorism was pioneered by Hugo Munsterberg, Mary Parker Follett, and Elton Mayo. Douglas McGregor was a pioneer of the human relations movement.

Sarah is a manager whokeeps a tight rein on her staff since she considers her workers to be irresponsible, lazy, and resistant to change. She is a Theory Y manager.

Theory X represents a pessimistic, negative view of workers. In this view, workers are considered to be irresponsible, to be resistant to change, to lack ambition, to hate work, and to want to be led rather than to lead. Theory Y represents the outlook of human relations proponents—an optimistic, positive view of workers.

Quality control focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for "zero defects".

Quality control is a strategy for minimizing errors by managing each state of production. Quality assurance focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for "zero defects".

An information organization has three parts: creating and acquiring knowledge, transferring knowledge, and modifying behavior.

A learning organization has three parts: creating and acquiring knowledge, transferring knowledge, and modifying behavior.

"True is better than new" is one of the truths of
evidence-based management.

The contemporary perspective includes which of the following viewpoints?

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth identified 17 basic units of _____, each of which they called a "therblig".

McDonald's ability to deliver food quickly and inexpensively has its roots in which management theory?
Classical viewpoint

______ focuses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving and decision making.
Management science

______ focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization's products or services more effectively.
Operations management

Stefan works on the assembly line of a US automobile manufacturer. He would be considered a(n) ______ of this system.

______ is the economic or productive potential of strong, trusting, and cooperative relationships.
Social capital

Which of the following is most likely to help build a learning organization?
Create a psychologically safe environment