• disrupted the allocation from the market and enabled greater numbers of people than ever before to trade music • The success of Napster as a new network medium enabled people to publish and network music. • It followed that our “push” culture, made available by the few who owned the media as the means of production is evolving into a “pull” or on‐demand music • New value creation of culture or music (cf., Winter 2011) YouTube, Spotify or SoundCloud – • constitutes new post‐capitalistic forms of music production, allocation and perception. • Activities like commenting, criticising, sharing, producing, posting, publishing, allows for innovation socially and culturally whilst at the same time creating cultural and social value instead of economic value. • change from a push to a pull strategy with an authoritative reference to Napster Potential for value creation is that these co‐creators is shown in the figure below: “social technographics ladder” (Li & Bernoff 2008:43) Criticisms of the technographics ladder: • people remain “consumers” • technology does not constitute relationships, but merely the use of them and it leads to the false premise that print media and electronic media differ from new media because they are not social. Fans are the driving force for music culture and music economy. As a result, both the live and record industry prospers dynamically on both ends of the value creation scale. Bonsu & Darmody empowerment that frees the consumer in a diversity of ways also offers significant avenues for entrapping the consumer into producing for the firm. In the end, co-creation is a veneer of consumer empowerment in a world where market power, in large measure, still resides in capital allows consumers to act out their desires for creativity, control, belonging, and affective community Consumers become “operant resources” (in Vargo and Lusch’s  terms) who are capable of creating value for themselves and others that’s the beauty of Second Life:all we’ve created is a platform,an almost empty world; where we got lucky is in the fact that you [users] came along and breathed life into it.
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