**Due By Sunday April 17, 2022 no later then 5pm

**Due By Sunday April 17, 2022 no later then 5pm Pacific USA time

**No plagiarizing

**Discussion topic below:

Some argue that scientific knowledge is superior to religious knowledge because science is objectively true, whereas religious beliefs are a component of culture. However, others maintain that “science, like a painting, necessarily has a perspective” (Medin, Lee, & Bang, 2014). For example, Kohlberg’s early work on the moral development of children was challenged because it ignored the perspectives of women and Eastern religious traditions. Sometimes the results of scientific studies can change based on the cultural lens of the scientists conducting the study. For example, most of the early study of chimpanzee behavior was conducted by men. Influenced by evolutionary biology, these researchers assumed that the male chimpanzees would compete with each other for dominance over the females. Therefore, whenever a female chimp asserted dominance over a male, it was dismissed as a fluke. However, when female scientists conducted the observation, they found that females played a more active role in the chimpanzee community than previously thought. Meanwhile, Japanese researchers gave more attention social relationships between the chimps, in contrast to the American researchers who focused on dominance hierarchies. Consequently, the Japanese researchers discovered new factors that determined social structure outside of male rank.In light of this, discuss in a post of no less than 250 words whether you think it is fair to say that science is more “culturally neutral” than religion.

  • Can you think of any other times when culture significantly influenced the way scientific research was conceptualized, conducted, or interpreted? (Feel free to look up examples online. Try to find an example that another student has not already discussed.)
  • Can you think of examples of how our American individualistic culture shapes our interpretation and application of Scripture?
  • Denominational differences aside, are Christian beliefs and practices in the United States fundamentally the same as those found in Africa, Asia, or Europe?
  • What can we do to minimize the influence of our culture on our understanding of scientific and religious truth?

***Next, respond to the posts of TWO other students in no less than 50 words each.

—>Student one please respond 50 word minimum <—

I am responding to the week two discussion board above. I think a time where culture significanly influenced the way scientific research was conceptualized was within the past twenty years with the anti-animal testing with science movement. I’ve noticed over the past twenty years there has been a major movement towards stopping animal testing and the way animals are treated in the scientific world. I personally believe there are plenty of other ways to do experiements rather than testing on animals, but I do understand from a scientific background that there are some animal’s who have brains similar to ours and that is why testing on those specific animals can be very helpful but also harmful to the animal. 

I think a way of how our American individualistic culture shapes our interpretation and application of scripture is that from a young age in school we are taught to trust and to believe in science. I think during the last two years of the pandemic was when people really started to question how truthful science is along with questioninghow specific science is done. I think that the application of scripture helps some people have a guide rather than using science as their only guide. 

I do not think that Christian beliefs and practices in the United States are fundementally the same as those found in Africa, Asia, or Europe. I think there are some similar practices in Europe as there are in The United States that would agree with Christian beliefs and practices, but not necessarily the same as here in The United States.

To minimize the influence of our culture on our understanding of scientific and religious truth, we could use reasoning that has good supporting evidence along with letting people be themselves and believe what they want without shoving our own specific beliefs down other peoples throats.

– Sara Warren

*—>Student Two please respond 50 word minimum <—*

A time when culture significantly influenced the way scientific research was conceptualized is actually in the present with more research being conducted on the effects/benefits of cannabis and CBD products.  Due to the legalization of this drug culture and science have more awareness and openness towards this once negatively viewed drug.

Examples of how our American individualistic culture shapes our interpretation and application of scripture could also have to do with the religious traditions that we were raised with. For example in the Mexican culture, Catholics have high regard towards “The Virgen de Guadalupe.” In addition in our Hispanic  family we were raised to go to church every Sunday and all major holidays this is something that is practiced in our culture. 

I believe that the main Christian beliefs may be the same as those found in Africa, Asia or Europe. However the way that they specifically practice and where may be different depending on the country. God and his message may be the same in other areas with a few differences among them. 

In order to minimize the influence of our culture on our understanding of scientific and religious truth we can try to be open to all presented viewpoints. Often we are so absorbed by the ideas and thoughts of our own culture and society that we failed to listen to and to adapt to other truths or viewpoints if needed. We can also speak with others who have views that differ so that we may gain a better understanding of how others may view their scientific and religious truths, and compare them to our own and adjust them if needed. 

-Adriana

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