Description Module 10: 1- Replay to Fahad: Outcome in terms of the impact that it has on an organization. COLLAPSE The Affordable Care Act,


Module 10:
1- Replay to Fahad:
Outcome in terms of the impact that it has on an organization.
The Affordable Care Act, popularly known as Obamacare, is the healthcare
policy that has had the greatest impact on patient outcomes. The Affordable Care
Act (ACA) was passed in 2010 with the purpose of increasing access to
affordable health insurance and improving healthcare quality in the United

Short-term outcomes: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) increased
Medicaid coverage and established health insurance exchanges,
providing access to health insurance for millions of previously uninsured
Americans. This resulted in a rise in the number of persons with health
insurance, particularly among low-income groups.
Intermediate outcomes: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) improved health
plan quality by ensuring essential health benefits coverage and
prohibited discrimination based on pre-existing conditions. This resulted
in improved access to preventive interventions and lower financial
barriers to care.
long-term outcomes: The ACA aims to reduce chronic disease
incidence, enhance population health, and cut healthcare costs by
enhancing access to healthcare and preventive services throughout
time. According to studies, the Affordable Care Act has reduced
uninsured rates, improved self-reported health, and reduced financial
obstacles to care.
The ACA was a comprehensive policy intervention that addressed several parts
of the healthcare system, therefore the changes in these outcomes may be
clearly attributable to it. Attributing Outcomes to Policies While the ACA has
clearly resulted in significant changes to the healthcare environment, it is crucial
to highlight that the policy’s full impact is still being assessed. The ACA’s
outcomes have been influenced by state-level implementation, changes in the
political landscape, and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
In terms of cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness, the ACA has been found to be
beneficial to both individual and society costs. Increased coverage and access to
preventative services have resulted in lower uncompensated care costs and
improved individual financial security. Furthermore, the ACA’s long-term health
benefits are predicted to offset the early implementation costs, making it an
affordable policy intervention.
Overall, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has had a major and demonstrable
influence on healthcare access, quality, and population health outcomes in the
United States, illustrating the importance of successful healthcare policy in
enhancing individual and community health.
Health Policy – Healthy People 2030 |
Mozafaripour, S. (2022, March 22). Healthcare policy: What is it and why is it
important? University of St. Augustine for Health
Oh, A., Abazeed, A., & Chambers, D. A. (2021). Policy Implementation Science
to Advance Population Health: The Potential for Learning Health Policy Systems.
Frontiers in Public Health, 9.
2- Replay to Nedaa:
Healthcare Associated Infections Policy: The Effect
In the context of organization level policymaking, it is important to consider the
implementation of a healthcare policy aimed at reducing hospital-acquired
infections (HAIs), which are a significant concern for healthcare organizations
due to their impact on patient safety, treatment outcomes, and healthcare costs.
Their impact is expected to range from short to long-term and could be tackled.
Expected Outcomes Of This Policy
Short-term outcomes include decreased incidence of HAIs, improved infection
control practices such as hand hygiene and environmental sanitation, leading to
a decrease in transmission of infectious agents within the facility, and increased
awareness and education among staff and patients regarding the importance of
infection prevention measures (Brisibe et al., 2015).
Intermediate outcomes are represented but not limited to the following: (1)
Reduction in healthcare costs: As the incidence of HAIs decreases, healthcare
organizations should observe a decline in associated costs, such as extended
hospital stays, additional treatments, and resources required for managing
infections, (2) Enhanced patient satisfaction: Patients are likely to perceive
healthcare facilities positively when they observe efforts to prevent infections,
leading to increased satisfaction scores, (3) Improved reputation: Organizations
that successfully implement infection control policies may experience enhanced
reputation in the community and among competitions.
Long-term outcomes may include: (1) Sustained reduction in HAIs: Over time,
the policy should contribute to maintaining low levels of HAIs, resulting in
improved overall patient safety and treatment outcomes, (2) Prevention of
antimicrobial resistance: Long-term outcomes may include a reduction in the
development and spread of antimicrobial resistance, as fewer infections
necessitate antibiotic use, (3) Cost savings and resource allocation: Continued
adherence to infection prevention policies can lead to long-term cost savings for
healthcare organizations, allowing for better allocation of resources to other
areas of need.
Attribution Of Changes In Outcomes To The Policy
Changes in outcomes can be attributed to the policy if there is a clear correlation
between its implementation and the observed improvements. Monitoring and
evaluation mechanisms should be in place to track the impact of the policy on
infection rates, adherence to protocols, patient satisfaction, and associated costs.
Comparative analysis with control groups or historical data can further validate
the effectiveness of the policy in bringing about desired changes.
Cost-Benefit Or Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
The cost-effectiveness of the policy can be assessed by comparing the expenses
incurred in implementing infection prevention measures with the cost savings
resulting from reduced HAIs and associated treatments. While initial investments
may be required for staff training, equipment, and infrastructure improvements,
the long-term benefits of preventing infections and minimizing healthcare costs
typically outweigh the initial expenditures, making the policy cost-effective in the
broader context of patient safety and organizational sustainability.
Brisibe, S., Ordinioha, B., & Gbeneolol, P. K. (2015). The effect of hospital
infection control policy on the prevalence of surgical site infection in a tertiary
hospital in South-South Nigeria. Nigerian Medical Journal/Nigerian Medical
Journal, 56(3), 194.
Module 11:
1- Replay to Eman:
Human Rights
One notable international human rights organization, other than Amnesty
International, is Human Rights Watch (HRW). HRW is dedicated to defending
and protecting human rights around the world. The organization focuses on
research and advocacy to bring attention to human rights abuses and hold
perpetrators accountable. (Human Rights Watch | Defending Human Rights
Worldwide, n.d.)
Mission of HRW: The mission of Human Rights Watch is to investigate and
report on abuses happening in all corners of the world. They focus on bringing
the facts to light, applying pressure on those in power to respect rights, and
ensuring justice for victims. (Human Rights Watch | Defending Human Rights
Worldwide, n.d.)
Partnerships: HRW partners with governments, NGOs, and international
organizations to influence policy changes and laws. They work closely with local
activists to monitor human rights conditions and collaborate with other groups to
advocate for the protection and promotion of human rights (Careers, 2023).
Challenges: HRW faces several challenges in addressing human rights
violations internationally, including:
-Political Resistance: Some governments may be resistant to HRW’s findings
and recommendations, making it difficult to implement changes.
-Resource Constraints: The scope of human rights abuses worldwide can strain
the organization’s resources, impacting their ability to respond effectively.
-Safety Risks: HRW staff and partners often work in volatile environments, which
can pose significant safety risks. (Human Rights Achievements and Challenges
in a Rapidly Changing World, 2023)
In conclusion, international human rights organizations like Amnesty International
and Human Rights Watch play a crucial role in promoting and protecting human
rights globally. They work tirelessly to investigate human rights abuses, advocate
for change, and hold perpetrators accountable. Despite facing challenges such
as political resistance, resource constraints, and safety risks, these organizations
strive to ensure that all individuals can live with dignity and have their rights
respected. Their efforts are a testament to the enduring importance of human
rights in our global society. (Engström, 2017)
Careers, H. R. (2023, October 21). 25 international human rights organizations.
Human Rights
Engström, P. (2017). Human Rights: effectiveness of international and regional
mechanisms. In Oxford University Press
Human rights achievements and challenges in a rapidly changing world. (2023,
April 17). United Nation Human
Human Rights Watch | Defending human rights worldwide.
2- Replay to Maram:
International human rights organization that focuses on curbing or stopping
human rights violations is the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
Let’s address the requirements for your assignment using the ICRC as an
Mission of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC): The ICRC’s
mission is to protect the lives and dignity of victims of armed conflict and other
situations of violence and to provide them with assistance. It works to ensure
respect for international humanitarian law and promotes humanitarian principles
globally. The ICRC operates independently and neutrally, with a mandate to visit
detainees, provide medical care, reunite families separated by conflict, and
engage in dialogue with armed groups and governments to address humanitarian
concerns (ICRC,2023).
Partnerships with Other Organizations: The ICRC collaborates extensively with
various governmental and non-governmental organizations to protect human
rights in conflict zones and other humanitarian crises. It works closely with
national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies, which are often among the first
responders during emergencies. The ICRC also partners with United Nations
agencies, other humanitarian organizations, and local NGOs to coordinate
humanitarian responses, share information, and advocate for the protection of
civilians and respect for international humanitarian law (Vara, 2019).
Challenges Faced by the ICRC: While the ICRC plays a vital role in mitigating
human rights violations during armed conflicts and humanitarian crises, it
encounters several challenges:
– Access to Affected Areas: In conflict zones, access to affected populations can
be restricted due to security concerns, logistical challenges, or government
obstruction. This limits the ICRC’s ability to provide assistance and monitor
human rights conditions effectively.
– Neutrality and Perceptions: Maintaining neutrality and impartiality is crucial for
the ICRC’s operations. However, in some contexts, parties to the conflict may
perceive the ICRC as biased or may not respect its humanitarian mandate,
leading to risks for ICRC staff and challenges in delivering aid.
– Funding and Resources: Like many humanitarian organizations, the ICRC relies
on donations and funding to sustain its operations. Adequate resources are
necessary to scale up responses, address emerging crises, and maintain a
presence in complex environments.
– Complexity of Conflict Dynamics: Understanding and navigating the complex
dynamics of armed conflicts, including multiple actors, shifting alliances, and
asymmetric warfare, requires nuanced strategies and engagement approaches.
The ICRC must adapt its interventions to diverse contexts while upholding its
humanitarian principles.
Despite these challenges, the ICRC’s longstanding commitment to humanitarian
action and its partnerships with diverse stakeholders contribute significantly to
protecting human rights and alleviating suffering in crisis-affected populations
globally (ICRC,2023).
International Committee of the Red Cross. (2023). Annual Report 2022. ICRC.
Vara, J. S. (2019). The Role of International Organizations in Promoting Human
Rights. International Journal of Human Rights, 23(6),

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