Description Mary Moore INSTRUCTOR MANAGER RE: Safeguarding Health Amidst the Hajj COLLAPSE Hi , Great discussion! The Hajj is the largest


RE: Safeguarding Health Amidst the Hajj
Hi ,
Great discussion! The Hajj is the largest gathering in the world and the logistics of managing the influx of pilgrims must be very complex, but the MoH has
provided amazing oversight of this annual event. It is important to recognize that there is a great need for international collaboration and cooperation to protect
both the Saudi citizens and the pilgrims. I thought that your suggestions for research were very good! I would add that thinking about the time of year is an
important factor since the Hajj takes place in the 12th month of the lunar calendar. This could help you uncover important information concerning crowds and the
diseases that could be encountered under those conditions. What would you recommend to encourage international researchers to perform needed research during
the Hajj?
Thank you,
Dr. Mary
Discussion: Module 14
Discussion: Module 14
The annual pilgrimage to Mecca, known as the Hajj, is a significant event in Islam and draws a large number of pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. This gathering poses
distinctive public health obstacles because of the considerable influx of pilgrims from across the globe. When a population health problem arises during the Hajj,
a systematic research approach is essential to protect the health of both the pilgrims and the resident population of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This
process can be divided into key phases: problem identification, preliminary investigation, comprehensive research, intervention development, implementation, and
The first step involves the detection and recognition of the health problem. This could occur through routine surveillance systems, reports from healthcare
facilities, or direct observations by health workers and researchers (Abubakar, Gautret, Blumberg, Johnson, & Memish, 2019). For instance, a sudden spike in
respiratory illnesses among pilgrims might trigger an alert. Once a health problem is identified, a preliminary investigation is needed to understand the scope and
urgency of the issue. This involves gathering initial data from hospitals, clinics, and other health services about the affected population, including the number of
cases, demographic details, and symptoms. Characterizing the distribution of health problems by time, place, and person is essential to identify patterns and potential
risk factors (Yezli & Alotaibi, 2019). Additionally, engaging with local health authorities, religious leaders, and community representatives is crucial to gaining
insights and support for the investigation.
A thorough research plan is then developed. This typically involves formulating specific research questions based on the preliminary findings. For example,
researchers may ask, “What are the primary risk factors contributing to respiratory illnesses during the Hajj?” Appropriate study designs, such as cohort studies,
case-control studies, or cross-sectional surveys, are selected to investigate the health problem (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2019).
Researchers decide on qualitative and quantitative data collection methods, including surveys, interviews, environmental sampling, and clinical testing (Khan, Shil,
& Haider, 2020). Ensuring ethical approval from relevant committees is particularly important given the diverse and international nature of the Hajj pilgrims
(Memish, Assiri, Turkestani, & Yezli, 2018). Based on the research findings, effective interventions need to be developed. This phase includes identifying potential
interventions by reviewing the literature and consulting with public health experts. Pilot testing these interventions helps assess their feasibility, acceptability, and
potential effectiveness (Abubakar et al., 2019). Securing necessary resources, including funding, personnel, and materials, is also a critical part of this phase.
The next step is the implementation of the interventions. This involves developing detailed implementation plans that outline specific activities, timelines, and
responsible parties. Training healthcare workers and educating the public and pilgrims about the interventions are essential components. Ensuring coordination
among various stakeholders, including health departments, religious authorities, and international health organizations, is crucial for successful implementation
(Memish et al., 2018). Finally, the interventions are evaluated to assess their impact and effectiveness. This involves continuously monitoring health outcomes and
collecting data to evaluate the intervention’s impact. Data analysis helps determine whether the interventions have reduced the health problem. Sharing the findings
with stakeholders and the broader public health community is important to inform future Hajj planning and public health strategies (CDC, 2019).
In conclusion, a well-structured research framework is vital for addressing population health problems during the Hajj. By following these phases, researchers
can develop and implement effective interventions that protect the health of both pilgrims and residents of the KSA. This approach ensures that public health
responses are evidence-based, culturally sensitive, and logistically feasible, ultimately contributing to better health outcomes and enhanced global health security.
Abubakar, I., Gautret, P., Blumberg, L., Johnson, D., & Memish, Z. A. (2019). Mass gatherings medicine: Public health issues arising from mass gathering religious
and sporting events. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 19(2), e75-e81.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Principles of epidemiology in public health practice. Third Edition. U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services. Retrieved from
Khan, M. U. G., Shil, S. K., & Haider, S. S. (2020). Epidemic preparedness and management at mass gathering events: Lessons from the Hajj. Journal of Infection
and Public Health, 13(5), 731-736.
Memish, Z. A., Assiri, A., Turkestani, A., & Yezli, S. (2018). Mass gatherings and global health security. The Lancet Global Health, 6(10), e1026-e1027.
Yezli, S., & Alotaibi, B. M. (2019). Mass gatherings and mass gatherings health. Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, 22-27. Retrieved from

Health Insurance in Saudi Arabia
Health Insurance in Saudi Arabia
In Saudi Arabia, the potential for growth in the health insurance sector is significant, driven by several key factors. These include population expansion, increasing
healthcare costs, a growing demand for high-quality healthcare services, and government initiatives aimed at improving healthcare accessibility and affordability.
The implementation of mandatory health insurance for expatriates and the ongoing expansion of the healthcare industry have contributed to a burgeoning market
for health insurance solutions in the nation. However, an important avenue for further growth lies in extending coverage to Saudi nationals, as their current
participation in insurance is notably lower than that of expatriates. Increasing awareness of the importance of health insurance and offering cost-effective coverage
options tailored to the needs of Saudi citizens could substantially boost enrollment rates and expand the landscape for health insurance providers (Hazazi et al.,
In the coming years, the landscape of health insurance in Saudi Arabia will be marked by a number of significant challenges. These include the escalating costs of
healthcare, a growing incidence of chronic diseases, limitations in healthcare infrastructure, and the intricacies of regulatory frameworks. Furthermore, the sociocultural environment and varying levels of health literacy among the population may present obstacles in raising awareness and comprehension of health insurance
(AlJohani & Bugis, 2024).
Health insurance in Saudi Arabia holds the potential for a significant financial impact. By spreading the financial risk of healthcare expenses across a broader pool
of insured individuals, health insurance can mitigate the strain on government budgets and reduce out-of-pocket spending for individuals. A robust health insurance
system has the capacity to attract investment in the healthcare sector, fostering economic growth and creating job opportunities in related industries. Nevertheless,
the success and long-term sustainability of a health insurance scheme will heavily depend on the population’s support and willingness to participate and contribute
financially, given their accustomedness to free public services, including healthcare (Alharbi, 2022).
When it comes to healthcare, the implementation of health insurance in Saudi Arabia can lead to numerous positive outcomes. It has the potential to ensure prompt
access to medical care, promote preventive health measures, and contribute to the development of a more efficient and patient-centered healthcare system. Through
the encouragement of regular health check-ups, early detection of diseases, and proactive management of chronic conditions, health insurance can significantly
improve health outcomes and the overall well-being of the population. Additionally, health insurance can serve as an incentive for healthcare providers to deliver
high-quality care while managing costs, which ultimately leads to better health outcomes for the population. By aligning financial incentives with healthcare quality
and efficiency, health insurance can greatly enhance care delivery, patient satisfaction, and overall healthcare performance (AlJohani & Bugis, 2024).
In conclusion, Health insurance in Saudi Arabia has the potential to significantly impact both the country’s finances and its healthcare system. By spreading financial
risk, attracting investment, and improving healthcare access and quality, health insurance can play a vital role in advancing the country’s healthcare goals and
ensuring the well-being of its population.
Alharbi, A. Willingness to pay for a National Health Insurance (NHI) in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 22, 951 (2022).

AlJohani, B. A., & Bugis, B. A. (2024). Advantages and Challenges of Implementation and Strategies for Health Insurance in Saudi Arabia: A Systemic Review.
Inquiry: A Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing, 61.
Hazazi, A., Wilson, A., & Larkin, S. (2022). Reform of the Health Insurance Funding Model to Improve the Care of Noncommunicable Diseases Patients in Saudi
Arabia. Healthcare, 10(11).
Insurance Market in Saudi Arabia
Growth opportunities for health insurance in Saudi Arabia
The insurance market in Saudi Arabia has been continuously growing, and it was valued at US$ 6.5 Billion By the year 2021. The IMARC Group expects the
Saudi Arabian insurance market to reach US$ 9.4 by the year 2027 despite the uncertainties of the COVID 19 pandemic (Imarc, 2022). These are positive signs
that the insurance market has the opportunity to grow massively. According to (Alharbi, 2021), the Kingdom of Arabia’s government prioritizes health and is
putting every effort into ensuring every individual access to quality health, including compulsory insurance health plans. These efforts by the government to ensure
that everybody has health insurance cover indicate that the insurance market will continue to grow since it has a favorable environment to operate.
Moreover, the push to increase healthcare privatization from 25% to 35% will intensify the need for health insurance (Alharbi, 2021). This will ensure that even
the individuals covered under the governmental programs still enroll in supplemental insurance services, which will help the insurance industry’s growth.
Furthermore, Saudi Arabia has received increased foreign patients due to their improved medical facilities. As a result, the insurance companies can tailor their
products even to cover the visitors, which is a sign of more significant opportunities for the insurance market. Thus, everything at the moment indicates that the
insurance market in Saudi Arabia will continue to grow.
Possible future challenges
Even though the future seems to be bright for the insurance market in Saudi Arabia, there might be some challenges in the future. The first looming challenge
is funding and healthcare delivery since the funding system has overstretched. Albejaidi (2017) claims that a growing number of chronic illnesses, an increasing
number of laborers, and increased aging population, and ineffective health services are likely to lead to funding problems in the future. Thus, the insurance
companies should prepare early enough to address the issue of the overstretched funding system. Furthermore, the inequalities between the health services in remote
and urban regions might lead to problems in the future. The disparity in healthcare provision is against the aim of health insurance companies which might lead to
some irritation in the future. Finally, the uncertainties of health pandemics like the COVID 19 might affect the insurance sector in the future as the magnitude of
impacts are unknown.
How can health insurance in Saudi Arabia financially impact the country?
The insurance market can positively impact the economy of Saudi Arabia. The first way of influencing the nation is through employing many citizens. These
employees will pay taxes in various forms, which will improve the nation’s revenue. Moreover, health insurance ensures a healthy country since most citizens can
access quality care (Al-Hanawi et al., 2019). This will go a long way to improve labor productivity which contributes to the country’s GDP. Thus, the insurance
market can quickly impact the economy of Saudi Arabia.
What could it do for healthcare?
The health insurance growth in Saudi Arabia can positively impact the healthcare provision in this region. For instance, companies can demand quality care for
their clients. This will ensure healthcare facilities employs qualified staff and offers quality medical attention to all the patients. Furthermore, by realizing funds to
the medical facilities on time, the facilities will be able to improve their operations and adopt current technologies that will enhance the care provided. Hence, the
insurance market has the potential to impact healthcare positively.
Albejaidi, F. (2017). Prospects and challenges for free-of-charge health care system: A way forward to health insurance in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of
Medical Science and Public Health, 6(3), 1.
Al-Hanawi, M. K., Alsharqi, O., Almazrou, S., & Vaidya, K. (2019). Healthcare finance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A qualitative study of householders’
attitudes. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, 16(1), 55-64.
Alharbi, M. F. (2021). National health insurance system for universal health coverage: Prospects and challenges in Saudi Arabia. International Journal Of
Community Medicine And Public Health, 6(11), 5006.
Financial Condition Analysis
Understanding a healthcare organization’s financial status is equally important for proper management (Biswas, 2020). The basis of
management decisions and their soundness depends partially on financial analysis, a technique that assesses the financial status of a corporate
entity. Healthcare managers can discover how the organization’s financial position differs across many dimensions through a well-chosen set
of financial ratios.
Liquidity Ratio
The current ratio evaluates a company’s capacity to settle its short-term debts using its short-term assets. It is computed as current
assets divided by current liabilities. This ratio is especially significant in healthcare since liquidity is necessary for day-to-day activities like
buying medical supplies and paying employees (Nick Hernandez, 2017). A high current ratio reassures creditors and investors about the
company’s liquidity situation by showing short-term solid financial health and the capacity to satisfy immediate liabilities.
Profitability Ratio
Operating margin is the proportion of revenue remaining after operating expenditures are paid. It is computed by dividing operating
income by net sales. This ratio is essential to the healthcare industry. This is because it assesses how well the company’s primary revenuegenerating operations work. A more significant operational margin facilitates comparing the performance of comparable firms in the industry
by indicating effective management and a robust ability to create profit from core operations (Biswas, 2020). However, there are restrictions
on the operating margin. It ignores non-operating revenue and costs, which in the healthcare industry can be substantial and include taxes and
interest. As such, it might give a vague picture of total profitability even though it does provide insight into operational efficiency.
Solvency Ratio
A company’s debt-to-equity ratio is determined by dividing its total liabilities by its shareholders’ equity. It indicates how much of
its activities are financed by debt instead of entirely owned cash. This ratio is essential when evaluating a healthcare organization’s long-term
financial viability (Nick Hernandez, 2017). A lower debt-to-equity ratio indicates better economic stability and a reduced chance of insolvency.
This is particularly significant in the capital-intensive healthcare sector. On the other hand, neither the cost of debt nor the company’s capacity
to service its debt is indicated by this ratio. Furthermore, a high equity position could indicate underleverage and the potential to miss out on
funding options for expansion.
In conclusion, financial ratios are essential when determining a healthcare organization’s economic stability. Liquidity, profitability,
and solvency indicators help understand different aspects of financial health.
Biswas, S. (2020). Measuring performance of healthcare supply chains in India: A comparative analysis of multi-criteria decision
making methods. Decision Making: Applications in Management and Engineering, 3(2), 162-189.

Nick Hernandez, M. B. A. (2017). Essential financial metrics. The Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM, 32(6),
2 days ago
Financial Condition Analysis
Financial analysis is crucial for healthcare companies. It provides insights into the company’s financial status, facilitating informed decisions
about budget allocation, cost management, and future investments (Sihombing et al., 2023). It also helps identify trends, optimize operations,
and improve profitability, contributing to the organization’s growth and sustainability.
Several key ratios offer valuable insights when assessing a healthcare organization’s financial condition:

Current Ratio – This ratio reflects the organization’s ability to meet its short-term obligations. A higher ratio suggests a better
ability to pay. However, an excessively high current ratio might indicate inefficient use of current assets or short-term financing
facilities (Dewi & Anindya, 2018).

Debt Equity Ratio – This ratio measures an organization’s financial leverage, calculated by dividing total liabilities by
shareholders’ equity. A lower ratio is typically preferred as it suggests a lower risk of default. However, an extremely low ratio
might also indicate that the company isn’t capitalizing on the increased profits that financial leverage can offer.

Profit Margin – This ratio shows the percentage of total services revenue retained by the organization after incurring the direct
costs related to producing the goods and services provided. A high gross profit margin indicates the organization can make a
reasonable profit, provided overhead costs are controlled. Comparing this ratio with industry competitors is essential as norms can
vary (Dubas-Jakóbczyk et al., 2021).

Return on Equity (ROE) – This ratio measures an organization’s profitability by indicating how much profit a company
generates with shareholders’ investments. A high ROE might signal effective management in generating returns on equity
(Beauvais et al., 2023). However, an excessively high ROE might suggest the company is incurring too much debt.
In conclusion, financial condition analysis is essential for evaluating a healthcare organization’s health. It allows stakeholders to understand
the organization’s ability to meet short-term obligations, use of financial leverage, and returns for shareholders by analyzing key financial
ratios. However, these ratios should be used wisely, as extremely high or low values can signal potential problems. Thus, considering industry
norms and trends when interpreting these numbers is vital for making informed decisions.
Beauvais, B., Dolezel, D., & Ramamonjiarivelo, Z. (2023). An Exploratory Analysis of the Association between Hospital Quality Measures
and Financial Performance. Healthcare, 11(20), 2758.
Dewi, S., & Anindya, A. (2018). The Influence of Institutional Ownership, Profitability, Liquidity, Dividend Policy, Debt Policy on Firm
Dubas-Jakóbczyk, K., Kocot, E., Tambor, M., & Quentin, W. (2021). The association between hospital financial performance and the quality
of care—a scoping review protocol. Systematic Reviews, 10(1), 221.
Sihombing, P., Husni, R. A., & Zakchona, E. (2023). Financial ratios and institutional ownership impact on healthcare firm’s value: A
moderation role of leverage. Jurnal Ekonomi Dan Bisnis, 26(2), 431–448.

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